UTF7Encoding.cs source code in C# .NET

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Code:

/ DotNET / DotNET / 8.0 / untmp / whidbey / REDBITS / ndp / clr / src / BCL / System / Text / UTF7Encoding.cs / 1 / UTF7Encoding.cs

                            // ==++== 
//
//   Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
//
// ==--== 
//
// Don't override IsAlwaysNormalized because it is just a Unicode Transformation and could be confused. 
// 

namespace System.Text 
{
    using System;
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.Security.Permissions; 

 
    [Serializable] 
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
    public class UTF7Encoding : Encoding 
    {
        private const String base64Chars =
            "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";
        //   0123456789111111111122222222223333333333444444444455555555556666 
        //             012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123
 
        // These are the characters that can be directly encoded in UTF7. 
        private const String directChars =
            "\t\n\r '(),-./0123456789:?ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"; 

        // These are the characters that can be optionally directly encoded in UTF7.
        private const String optionalChars =
            "!\"#$%&*;<=>@[]^_`{|}"; 

        // The set of base 64 characters. 
        private byte[] base64Bytes; 
        // The decoded bits for every base64 values. This array has a size of 128 elements.
        // The index is the code point value of the base 64 characters.  The value is -1 if 
        // the code point is not a valid base 64 character.  Otherwise, the value is a value
        // from 0 ~ 63.
        private sbyte[] base64Values;
        // The array to decide if a Unicode code point below 0x80 can be directly encoded in UTF7. 
        // This array has a size of 128.
        private bool[] directEncode; 
 
        [OptionalField(VersionAdded = 2)]
        private bool   m_allowOptionals; 

        private const int UTF7_CODEPAGE=65000;

 
        public UTF7Encoding()
            : this(false) 
        { 
        }
 
        public UTF7Encoding(bool allowOptionals)
            : base(UTF7_CODEPAGE) //Set the data item.
        {
            // Allowing optionals? 
            this.m_allowOptionals = allowOptionals;
 
            // Make our tables 
            MakeTables();
        } 

        private void MakeTables()
        {
            // Build our tables 
            base64Bytes = new byte[64];
            for (int i = 0; i < 64; i++) base64Bytes[i] = (byte)base64Chars[i]; 
            base64Values = new sbyte[128]; 
            for (int i = 0; i < 128; i++) base64Values[i] = -1;
            for (int i = 0; i < 64; i++) base64Values[base64Bytes[i]] = (sbyte)i; 
            directEncode = new bool[128];
            int count = directChars.Length;
            for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
            { 
                directEncode[directChars[i]] = true;
            } 
 
            if (this.m_allowOptionals)
            { 
                count = optionalChars.Length;
                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
                {
                    directEncode[optionalChars[i]] = true; 
                }
            } 
        } 

        // We go ahead and set this because Encoding expects it, however nothing can fall back in UTF7. 
        internal override void SetDefaultFallbacks()
        {
            // UTF7 had an odd decoderFallback behavior, and the Encoder fallback
            // is irrelevent because we encode surrogates individually and never check for unmatched ones 
            // (so nothing can fallback during encoding)
            this.encoderFallback = new EncoderReplacementFallback(String.Empty); 
            this.decoderFallback = new DecoderUTF7Fallback(); 
        }
 

#region Serialization
        [OnDeserializing]
        private void OnDeserializing(StreamingContext ctx) 
        {
            // make sure the optional fields initialized correctly. 
            base.OnDeserializing(); 
        }
 
        [OnDeserialized]
        private void OnDeserialized(StreamingContext ctx)
        {
            base.OnDeserialized(); 

            if (m_deserializedFromEverett) 
            { 
                // If 1st optional char is encoded we're allowing optionals
                m_allowOptionals = directEncode[optionalChars[0]]; 
            }

            MakeTables();
        } 
#endregion Serialization
 
 

        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)] 
        public override bool Equals(Object value)
        {
            UTF7Encoding that = value as UTF7Encoding;
            if (that != null) 
            {
                return (m_allowOptionals == that.m_allowOptionals) && 
                       (EncoderFallback.Equals(that.EncoderFallback)) && 
                       (DecoderFallback.Equals(that.DecoderFallback));
            } 
            return (false);
        }

        // Compared to all the other encodings, variations of UTF7 are unlikely 

        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)] 
        public override int GetHashCode() 
        {
            return this.CodePage + this.EncoderFallback.GetHashCode() + this.DecoderFallback.GetHashCode(); 
        }

        //
        // The following methods are copied from EncodingNLS.cs. 
        // Unfortunately EncodingNLS.cs is internal and we're public, so we have to reimpliment them here.
        // These should be kept in sync for the following classes: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
        //
 
        // Returns the number of bytes required to encode a range of characters in
        // a character array.
        //
        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
        // parent method is safe 

        public override unsafe int GetByteCount(char[] chars, int index, int count) 
        {
            // Validate input parameters
            if (chars == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("chars", 
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));
 
            if (index < 0 || count < 0) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((index<0 ? "index" : "count"),
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum")); 

            if (chars.Length - index < count)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("chars",
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCountBuffer")); 

            // If no input, return 0, avoid fixed empty array problem 
            if (chars.Length == 0) 
                return 0;
 
            // Just call the pointer version
            fixed (char* pChars = chars)
                return GetByteCount(pChars + index, count, null);
        } 

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding
        // parent method is safe 

        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)]
        public override unsafe int GetByteCount(String s)
        { 
            // Validate input
            if (s==null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("s"); 

            fixed (char* pChars = s) 
                return GetByteCount(pChars, s.Length, null);
        }

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
 
        [CLSCompliant(false)]
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)] 
        public override unsafe int GetByteCount(char* chars, int count)
        {
            // Validate Parameters
            if (chars == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("chars",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array")); 
 
            if (count < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("count", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));

            // Call it with empty encoder
            return GetByteCount(chars, count, null); 
        }
 
        // Parent method is safe. 
        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS)
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding

        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)]
        public override unsafe int GetBytes(String s, int charIndex, int charCount, 
                                              byte[] bytes, int byteIndex)
        { 
            if (s == null || bytes == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException((s == null ? "s" : "bytes"),
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array")); 

            if (charIndex < 0 || charCount < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((charIndex<0 ? "charIndex" : "charCount"),
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum")); 

            if (s.Length - charIndex < charCount) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("s", 
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCount"));
 
            if (byteIndex < 0 || byteIndex > bytes.Length)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("byteIndex",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_Index"));
 
            int byteCount = bytes.Length - byteIndex;
 
            // Fixed doesn't like empty arrays 
            if (bytes.Length == 0)
                bytes = new byte[1]; 

            fixed (char* pChars = s)
                fixed ( byte* pBytes = bytes)
                    return GetBytes(pChars + charIndex, charCount, 
                                    pBytes + byteIndex, byteCount, null);
        } 
 
        // Encodes a range of characters in a character array into a range of bytes
        // in a byte array. An exception occurs if the byte array is not large 
        // enough to hold the complete encoding of the characters. The
        // GetByteCount method can be used to determine the exact number of
        // bytes that will be produced for a given range of characters.
        // Alternatively, the GetMaxByteCount method can be used to 
        // determine the maximum number of bytes that will be produced for a given
        // number of characters, regardless of the actual character values. 
        // 
        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS)
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding
        // parent method is safe

        public override unsafe int GetBytes(char[] chars, int charIndex, int charCount, 
                                               byte[] bytes, int byteIndex)
        { 
            // Validate parameters 
            if (chars == null || bytes == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException((chars == null ? "chars" : "bytes"), 
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));

            if (charIndex < 0 || charCount < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((charIndex<0 ? "charIndex" : "charCount"), 
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));
 
            if (chars.Length - charIndex < charCount) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("chars",
                      Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCountBuffer")); 

            if (byteIndex < 0 || byteIndex > bytes.Length)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("byteIndex",
                     Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_Index")); 

            // If nothing to encode return 0, avoid fixed problem 
            if (chars.Length == 0) 
                return 0;
 
            // Just call pointer version
            int byteCount = bytes.Length - byteIndex;

            // Fixed doesn't like empty arrays 
            if (bytes.Length == 0)
                bytes = new byte[1]; 
 
            fixed (char* pChars = chars)
                fixed (byte* pBytes = bytes) 
                    // Remember that byteCount is # to decode, not size of array.
                    return GetBytes(pChars + charIndex, charCount,
                                    pBytes + byteIndex, byteCount, null);
        } 

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding
 
        [CLSCompliant(false)]
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)]
        public override unsafe int GetBytes(char* chars, int charCount, byte* bytes, int byteCount)
        { 
            // Validate Parameters
            if (bytes == null || chars == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException(bytes == null ? "bytes" : "chars", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));
 
            if (charCount < 0 || byteCount < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((charCount<0 ? "charCount" : "byteCount"),
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));
 
            return GetBytes(chars, charCount, bytes, byteCount, null);
        } 
 
        // Returns the number of characters produced by decoding a range of bytes
        // in a byte array. 
        //
        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS)
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
        // parent method is safe
 
        public override unsafe int GetCharCount(byte[] bytes, int index, int count) 
        {
            // Validate Parameters 
            if (bytes == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("bytes",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));
 
            if (index < 0 || count < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((index<0 ? "index" : "count"), 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum")); 

            if (bytes.Length - index < count) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("bytes",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCountBuffer"));

            // If no input just return 0, fixed doesn't like 0 length arrays. 
            if (bytes.Length == 0)
                return 0; 
 
            // Just call pointer version
            fixed (byte* pBytes = bytes) 
                return GetCharCount(pBytes + index, count, null);
        }

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
 
        [CLSCompliant(false)]
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)] 
        public override unsafe int GetCharCount(byte* bytes, int count)
        {
            // Validate Parameters
            if (bytes == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("bytes",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array")); 
 
            if (count < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("count", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));

            return GetCharCount(bytes, count, null);
        } 

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include: 
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding
        // parent method is safe 

        public override unsafe int GetChars(byte[] bytes, int byteIndex, int byteCount,
                                              char[] chars, int charIndex)
        { 
            // Validate Parameters
            if (bytes == null || chars == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException(bytes == null ? "bytes" : "chars", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));
 
            if (byteIndex < 0 || byteCount < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((byteIndex<0 ? "byteIndex" : "byteCount"),
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));
 
            if ( bytes.Length - byteIndex < byteCount)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("bytes", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCountBuffer")); 

            if (charIndex < 0 || charIndex > chars.Length) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("charIndex",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_Index"));

            // If no input, return 0 & avoid fixed problem 
            if (bytes.Length == 0)
                return 0; 
 
            // Just call pointer version
            int charCount = chars.Length - charIndex; 

            // Fixed doesn't like empty arrays
            if (chars.Length == 0)
                chars = new char[1]; 

            fixed (byte* pBytes = bytes) 
                fixed (char* pChars = chars) 
                    // Remember that charCount is # to decode, not size of array
                    return GetChars(pBytes + byteIndex, byteCount, 
                                    pChars + charIndex, charCount, null);
        }

        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding 
 
        [CLSCompliant(false)]
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)] 
        public unsafe override int GetChars(byte* bytes, int byteCount, char* chars, int charCount)
        {
            // Validate Parameters
            if (bytes == null || chars == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException(bytes == null ? "bytes" : "chars",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array")); 
 
            if (charCount < 0 || byteCount < 0)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((charCount<0 ? "charCount" : "byteCount"), 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));

            return GetChars(bytes, byteCount, chars, charCount, null);
        } 

        // Returns a string containing the decoded representation of a range of 
        // bytes in a byte array. 
        //
        // All of our public Encodings that don't use EncodingNLS must have this (including EncodingNLS) 
        // So if you fix this, fix the others.  Currently those include:
        // EncodingNLS, UTF7Encoding, UTF8Encoding, UTF32Encoding, ASCIIEncoding, UnicodeEncoding
        // parent method is safe
 
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)]
        public override unsafe String GetString(byte[] bytes, int index, int count) 
        { 
            // Validate Parameters
            if (bytes == null) 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("bytes",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentNull_Array"));

            if (index < 0 || count < 0) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException((index < 0 ? "index" : "count"),
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum")); 
 
            if (bytes.Length - index < count)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("bytes", 
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_IndexCountBuffer"));

            // Avoid problems with empty input buffer
            if (bytes.Length == 0) return String.Empty; 

            fixed (byte* pBytes = bytes) 
                return String.CreateStringFromEncoding( 
                    pBytes + index, count, this);
        } 

        //
        // End of standard methods copied from EncodingNLS.cs
        // 

        internal override unsafe int GetByteCount(char* chars, int count, EncoderNLS baseEncoder) 
        { 
            BCLDebug.Assert(chars!=null, "[UTF7Encoding.GetByteCount]chars!=null");
            BCLDebug.Assert(count >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetByteCount]count >=0"); 

            // Just call GetBytes with bytes == null
            return GetBytes(chars, count, null, 0, baseEncoder);
        } 

        internal override unsafe int GetBytes(char* chars, int charCount, 
                                                byte* bytes, int byteCount, EncoderNLS baseEncoder) 
        {
            BCLDebug.Assert(byteCount >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetBytes]byteCount >=0"); 
            BCLDebug.Assert(chars!=null, "[UTF7Encoding.GetBytes]chars!=null");
            BCLDebug.Assert(charCount >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetBytes]charCount >=0");

            // Get encoder info 
            UTF7Encoding.Encoder encoder = (UTF7Encoding.Encoder)baseEncoder;
 
            // Default bits & count 
            int bits = 0;
            int bitCount = -1; 

            // prepare our helpers
            Encoding.EncodingByteBuffer buffer = new Encoding.EncodingByteBuffer(
                this, encoder, bytes, byteCount, chars, charCount); 

            if (encoder != null) 
            { 
                bits = encoder.bits;
                bitCount = encoder.bitCount; 

                // May have had too many left over
                while (bitCount >= 6)
                { 
                    bitCount -= 6;
                    // If we fail we'll never really have enough room 
                    if (!buffer.AddByte(base64Bytes[(bits >> bitCount) & 0x3F])) 
                        ThrowBytesOverflow(encoder, buffer.Count == 0);
                } 
            }

            while (buffer.MoreData)
            { 
                char currentChar = buffer.GetNextChar();
 
                if (currentChar < 0x80 && directEncode[currentChar]) 
                {
                    if (bitCount >= 0) 
                    {
                        if (bitCount > 0)
                        {
                            // Try to add the next byte 
                            if (!buffer.AddByte(base64Bytes[bits << 6 - bitCount & 0x3F]))
                                break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw 
 
                            bitCount = 0;
                        } 

                        // Need to get emit '-' and our char, 2 bytes total
                        if (!buffer.AddByte((byte)'-'))
                            break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw 

                        bitCount = -1; 
                    } 

                    // Need to emit our char 
                    if (!buffer.AddByte((byte)currentChar))
                        break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw
                }
                else if (bitCount < 0 && currentChar == '+') 
                {
                    if (!buffer.AddByte((byte)'+', (byte)'-')) 
                        break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw 
                }
                else 
                {
                    if (bitCount < 0)
                    {
                        // Need to emit a + and 12 bits (3 bytes) 
                        // Only 12 of the 16 bits will be emitted this time, the other 4 wait 'til next time
                        if (!buffer.AddByte((byte)'+')) 
                            break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw 

                        // We're now in bit mode, but haven't stored data yet 
                        bitCount = 0;
                    }

                    // Add our bits 
                    bits = bits << 16 | currentChar;
                    bitCount += 16; 
 
                    while (bitCount >= 6)
                    { 
                        bitCount -= 6;
                        if (!buffer.AddByte(base64Bytes[(bits >> bitCount) & 0x3F]))
                        {
                            bitCount += 6;                              // We didn't use these bits 
                            currentChar = buffer.GetNextChar();              // We're processing this char still, but AddByte
                                                                        // --'d it when we ran out of space 
                            break;                                      // Stop here, not enough room for bytes 
                        }
                    } 

                    if (bitCount >= 6)
                        break;                  // Didn't have room to encode enough bits
                } 
            }
 
            // Now if we have bits left over we have to encode them. 
            // MustFlush may have been cleared by encoding.ThrowBytesOverflow earlier if converting
            if (bitCount >= 0 && (encoder == null || encoder.MustFlush)) 
            {
                // Do we have bits we have to stick in?
                if (bitCount > 0)
                { 
                    if (buffer.AddByte(base64Bytes[(bits << (6 - bitCount)) & 0x3F]))
                    { 
                        // Emitted spare bits, 0 bits left 
                        bitCount = 0;
                    } 
                }

                // If converting and failed bitCount above, then we'll fail this too
                if (buffer.AddByte((byte)'-')) 
                {
                    // turned off bit mode'; 
                    bits = 0; 
                    bitCount = -1;
                } 
                else
                    // If not successful, convert will maintain state for next time, also
                    // AddByte will have decremented our char count, however we need it to remain the same
                    buffer.GetNextChar(); 
            }
 
            // Do we have an encoder we're allowed to use? 
            // bytes == null if counting, so don't use encoder then
            if (bytes != null && encoder != null) 
            {
                // We already cleared bits & bitcount for mustflush case
                encoder.bits = bits;
                encoder.bitCount = bitCount; 
                encoder.m_charsUsed = buffer.CharsUsed;
            } 
 
            return buffer.Count;
        } 

        internal override unsafe int GetCharCount(byte* bytes, int count, DecoderNLS baseDecoder)
        {
            BCLDebug.Assert(count >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetCharCount]count >=0"); 
            BCLDebug.Assert(bytes!=null, "[UTF7Encoding.GetCharCount]bytes!=null");
 
            // Just call GetChars with null char* to do counting 
            return GetChars(bytes, count, null, 0, baseDecoder);
        } 

        internal override unsafe int GetChars(byte* bytes, int byteCount,
                                                char* chars, int charCount, DecoderNLS baseDecoder)
        { 
            BCLDebug.Assert(byteCount >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetChars]byteCount >=0");
            BCLDebug.Assert(bytes!=null, "[UTF7Encoding.GetChars]bytes!=null"); 
            BCLDebug.Assert(charCount >=0, "[UTF7Encoding.GetChars]charCount >=0"); 

            // Might use a decoder 
            UTF7Encoding.Decoder decoder = (UTF7Encoding.Decoder) baseDecoder;

            // Get our output buffer info.
            Encoding.EncodingCharBuffer buffer = new Encoding.EncodingCharBuffer( 
                this, decoder, chars, charCount, bytes, byteCount);
 
            // Get decoder info 
            int bits = 0;
            int bitCount = -1; 
            bool firstByte = false;
            if (decoder != null)
            {
                bits = decoder.bits; 
                bitCount = decoder.bitCount;
                firstByte = decoder.firstByte; 
 
                BCLDebug.Assert(firstByte == false || decoder.bitCount <= 0,
                    "[UTF7Encoding.GetChars]If remembered bits, then first byte flag shouldn't be set"); 
            }

            // We may have had bits in the decoder that we couldn't output last time, so do so now
            if (bitCount >= 16) 
            {
                // Check our decoder buffer 
                if (!buffer.AddChar((char)((bits >> (bitCount - 16)) & 0xFFFF))) 
                    ThrowCharsOverflow(decoder, true);  // Always throw, they need at least 1 char even in Convert
 
                // Used this one, clean up extra bits
                bitCount -= 16;
            }
 
            // Loop through the input
            while (buffer.MoreData) 
            { 
                byte currentByte = buffer.GetNextByte();
                int c; 

                if (bitCount >= 0)
                {
                    // 
                    // Modified base 64 encoding.
                    // 
                    sbyte v; 
                    if (currentByte < 0x80 && ((v = base64Values[currentByte]) >=0))
                    { 
                        firstByte = false;
                        bits = (bits << 6) | ((byte)v);
                        bitCount += 6;
                        if (bitCount >= 16) 
                        {
                            c = (bits >> (bitCount - 16)) & 0xFFFF; 
                            bitCount -= 16; 
                        }
                        // If not enough bits just continue 
                        else continue;
                    }
                    else
                    { 
                        // If it wasn't a base 64 byte, everything's going to turn off base 64 mode
                        bitCount = -1; 
 
                        if (currentByte != '-')
                        { 
                            // >= 0x80 (because of 1st if statemtn)
                            // We need this check since the base64Values[b] check below need b <= 0x7f.
                            // This is not a valid base 64 byte.  Terminate the shifted-sequence and
                            // emit this byte. 

                            // not in base 64 table 
                            // According to the RFC 1642 and the example code of UTF-7 
                            // in Unicode 2.0, we should just zero-extend the invalid UTF7 byte
 
                            // Chars won't be updated unless this works, try to fallback
                            if (!buffer.Fallback(currentByte))
                                break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw
 
                            // Used that byte, we're done with it
                            continue; 
                        } 

                        // 
                        // The encoding for '+' is "+-".
                        //
                        if (firstByte) c = '+';
                        // We just turn it off if not emitting a +, so we're done. 
                        else continue;
                    } 
                    // 
                    // End of modified base 64 encoding block.
                    // 
                }
                else if (currentByte == '+')
                {
                    // 
                    // Found the start of a modified base 64 encoding block or a plus sign.
                    // 
                    bitCount = 0; 
                    firstByte = true;
                    continue; 
                }
                else
                {
                    // Normal character 
                    if (currentByte >= 0x80)
                    { 
                        // Try to fallback 
                        if (!buffer.Fallback(currentByte))
                            break;                                          // Stop here, didn't throw 

                        // Done falling back
                        continue;
                    } 

                    // Use the normal character 
                    c = currentByte; 
                }
 
                if (c >= 0)
                {
                    // Check our buffer
                    if (!buffer.AddChar((char)c)) 
                    {
                        // No room.  If it was a plain char we'll try again later. 
                        // Note, we'll consume this byte and stick it in decoder, even if we can't output it 
                        if (bitCount >= 0)                                  // Can we rememmber this byte (char)
                        { 
                            buffer.AdjustBytes(+1);                         // Need to readd the byte that AddChar subtracted when it failed
                            bitCount += 16;                                 // We'll still need that char we have in our bits
                        }
                        break;                                              // didn't throw, stop 
                    }
                } 
            } 

            // Stick stuff in the decoder if we can (chars == null if counting, so don't store decoder) 
            if (chars != null && decoder != null)
            {
                // MustFlush?  (Could've been cleared by ThrowCharsOverflow if Convert & didn't reach end of buffer)
                if (decoder.MustFlush) 
                {
                    // RFC doesn't specify what would happen if we have non-0 leftover bits, we just drop them 
                    decoder.bits = 0; 
                    decoder.bitCount = -1;
                    decoder.firstByte = false; 
                }
                else
                {
                    decoder.bits = bits; 
                    decoder.bitCount = bitCount;
                    decoder.firstByte = firstByte; 
                } 
                decoder.m_bytesUsed = buffer.BytesUsed;
            } 
            // else ignore any hanging bits.

            // Return our count
            return buffer.Count; 
        }
 
 
        public override System.Text.Decoder GetDecoder()
        { 
            return new UTF7Encoding.Decoder(this);
        }

 
        public override System.Text.Encoder GetEncoder()
        { 
            return new UTF7Encoding.Encoder(this); 
        }
 

        public override int GetMaxByteCount(int charCount)
        {
            if (charCount < 0) 
               throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("charCount",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum")); 
 
            // Suppose that every char can not be direct-encoded, we know that
            // a byte can encode 6 bits of the Unicode character.  And we will 
            // also need two extra bytes for the shift-in ('+') and shift-out ('-') mark.
            // Therefore, the max byte should be:
            // byteCount = 2 + Math.Ceiling((double)charCount * 16 / 6);
            // That is always <= 2 + 3 * charCount; 
            // Longest case is alternating encoded, direct, encoded data for 5 + 1 + 5... bytes per char.
            // UTF7 doesn't have left over surrogates, but if no input we may need an output - to turn off 
            // encoding if MustFlush is true. 

            // Its easiest to think of this as 2 bytes to turn on/off the base64 mode, then 3 bytes per char. 
            // 3 bytes is 18 bits of encoding, which is more than we need, but if its direct encoded then 3
            // bytes allows us to turn off and then back on base64 mode if necessary.

            // Note that UTF7 encoded surrogates individually and isn't worried about mismatches, so all 
            // code points are encodable int UTF7.
            long byteCount = (long)charCount * 3 + 2; 
 
            // check for overflow
            if (byteCount > 0x7fffffff) 
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("charCount", Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_GetByteCountOverflow"));

            return (int)byteCount;
        } 

 
        public override int GetMaxCharCount(int byteCount) 
        {
            if (byteCount < 0) 
               throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("byteCount",
                    Environment.GetResourceString("ArgumentOutOfRange_NeedNonNegNum"));

            // Worst case is 1 char per byte.  Minimum 1 for left over bits in case decoder is being flushed 
            // Also note that we ignore extra bits (per spec), so UTF7 doesn't have unknown in this direction.
            int charCount = byteCount; 
            if (charCount == 0) charCount = 1; 

            return charCount; 
        }

        [Serializable()]
        // Of all the amazing things... This MUST be Decoder so that our com name 
        // for System.Text.Decoder doesn't change
        private class Decoder : DecoderNLS, ISerializable 
        { 
            /*private*/ internal int bits;
            /*private*/ internal int bitCount; 
            /*private*/ internal bool firstByte;

            public Decoder(UTF7Encoding encoding) : base (encoding)
            { 
                // base calls reset
            } 
 
            // Constructor called by serialization, have to handle deserializing from Everett
            internal Decoder(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context) 
            {
                // Any info?
                if (info==null) throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
 
                // Get common info
                this.bits = (int)info.GetValue("bits", typeof(int)); 
                this.bitCount = (int)info.GetValue("bitCount", typeof(int)); 
                this.firstByte = (bool)info.GetValue("firstByte", typeof(bool));
                this.m_encoding = (Encoding)info.GetValue("encoding", typeof(Encoding)); 
            }

            // ISerializable implementation, get data for this object
            [SecurityPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Flags=SecurityPermissionFlag.SerializationFormatter)] 
            void ISerializable.GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
            { 
                // Any info? 
                if (info==null) throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
 
                // Save Whidbey data
                info.AddValue("encoding", this.m_encoding);
                info.AddValue("bits", this.bits);
                info.AddValue("bitCount", this.bitCount); 
                info.AddValue("firstByte", this.firstByte);
            } 
 
            public override void Reset()
            { 
                this.bits = 0;
                this.bitCount = -1;
                this.firstByte = false;
                if (m_fallbackBuffer != null) 
                    m_fallbackBuffer.Reset();
            } 
 
            // Anything left in our encoder?
            internal override bool HasState 
            {
                get
                {
                    // NOTE: This forces the last -, which some encoder might not encode.  If we 
                    // don't see it we don't think we're done reading.
                    return (this.bitCount != -1); 
                } 
            }
        } 

        [Serializable()]
        // Of all the amazing things... This MUST be Encoder so that our com name
        // for System.Text.Encoder doesn't change 
        private class Encoder : EncoderNLS, ISerializable
        { 
            /*private*/ internal int bits; 
            /*private*/ internal int bitCount;
 
            public Encoder(UTF7Encoding encoding) : base(encoding)
            {
                // base calls reset
            } 

            // Constructor called by serialization, have to handle deserializing from Everett 
            internal Encoder(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context) 
            {
                // Any info? 
                if (info==null) throw new ArgumentNullException("info");

                // Get common info
                this.bits = (int)info.GetValue("bits", typeof(int)); 
                this.bitCount = (int)info.GetValue("bitCount", typeof(int));
                this.m_encoding = (Encoding)info.GetValue("encoding", typeof(Encoding)); 
            } 

            // ISerializable implementation, get data for this object 
            [SecurityPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Flags=SecurityPermissionFlag.SerializationFormatter)]
            void ISerializable.GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
            {
                // Any info? 
                if (info==null) throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
 
                // Save Whidbey data 
                info.AddValue("encoding", this.m_encoding);
                info.AddValue("bits", this.bits); 
                info.AddValue("bitCount", this.bitCount);
            }

            public override void Reset() 
            {
                this.bitCount = -1; 
                this.bits = 0; 
                if (m_fallbackBuffer != null)
                    m_fallbackBuffer.Reset(); 
            }

            // Anything left in our encoder?
            internal override bool HasState 
            {
                get 
                { 
                    return (this.bits != 0 || this.bitCount != -1);
                } 
            }
        }

        // Preexisting UTF7 behavior for bad bytes was just to spit out the byte as the next char 
        // and turn off base64 mode if it was in that mode.  We still exit the mode, but now we fallback.
        [Serializable()] 
        internal sealed class DecoderUTF7Fallback : DecoderFallback 
        {
            // Construction.  Default replacement fallback uses no best fit and ? replacement string 
            public DecoderUTF7Fallback()
            {
            }
 
            public override DecoderFallbackBuffer CreateFallbackBuffer()
            { 
                return new DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer(this); 
            }
 
            // Maximum number of characters that this instance of this fallback could return
            public override int MaxCharCount
            {
                get 
                {
                    // returns 1 char per bad byte 
                    return 1; 
                }
            } 

             public override bool Equals(Object value)
            {
                DecoderUTF7Fallback that = value as DecoderUTF7Fallback; 
                if (that != null)
                { 
                    return true; 
                }
                return (false); 
            }

            public override int GetHashCode()
            { 
                return 984;
            } 
        } 

        internal sealed class DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer : DecoderFallbackBuffer 
        {
            // Store our default string
            char cFallback = (char)0;
            int  iCount = -1; 
            int  iSize;
 
            // Construction 
            public DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer(DecoderUTF7Fallback fallback)
            { 
            }

            // Fallback Methods
            public override bool Fallback(byte[] bytesUnknown, int index) 
            {
                // We expect no previous fallback in our buffer 
                BCLDebug.Assert(iCount < 0, "[DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer.Fallback] Can't have recursive fallbacks"); 
                BCLDebug.Assert(bytesUnknown.Length == 1, "[DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer.Fallback] Only possible fallback case should be 1 unknown byte");
 
                // Go ahead and get our fallback
                cFallback = (char)bytesUnknown[0];
                iCount = iSize = 1;
 
                return true;
            } 
 
            public override char GetNextChar()
            { 
                if (iCount-- > 0)
                    return cFallback;

                // Note: this means that 0 in UTF7 stream will never be emitted. 
                return (char)0;
            } 
 
            public override bool MovePrevious()
            { 
                if (iCount >= 0)
                {
                    iCount++;
                } 

                // return true if we were allowed to do this 
                return (iCount >= 0 && iCount <= iSize); 
            }
 
            // Return # of chars left in this fallback
            public override int Remaining
            {
                get 
                {
                    return (iCount > 0) ? iCount : 0; 
                } 
            }
 
            // Clear the buffer
            public override unsafe void Reset()
            {
                iCount = -1; 
                byteStart = null;
            } 
 
            // This version just counts the fallback and doesn't actually copy anything.
            internal unsafe override int InternalFallback(byte[] bytes, byte* pBytes) 
            // Right now this has both bytes and bytes[], since we might have extra bytes, hence the
            // array, and we might need the index, hence the byte*
            {
                // We expect no previous fallback in our buffer 
                BCLDebug.Assert(iCount < 0, "[DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer.InternalFallback] Can't have recursive fallbacks");
                BCLDebug.Assert(bytes.Length == 1, "[DecoderUTF7FallbackBuffer.InternalFallback] Only possible fallback case should be 1 unknown byte"); 
 
                // Can't fallback a byte 0, so return for that case, 1 otherwise.
                return bytes[0] == 0 ? 0 : 1; 
            }
        }

    } 
}
                        

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